Inventions by Muslims that Shaped the Modern World


The term algebra is derived from the title of a famous 9th century Persian mathematician’s treatise “Kitab al-Jabr Wa l-Mugabala,” which translates roughly as “The Book of Reasoning and Balancing.” The new algebraic order, based on the roots of Greek and Hindu systems, served as a unifying system for rational numbers, irrational numbers, and geometrical magnitudes. Al-Khwarizmi, the same mathematician, was also the first to introduce the concept of raising a number to a power.

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